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Archive for November, 2009

Lesson 8; Adverbs

  1. Posted by Bertha in Grammar |
  2. November 30th, 2009 |
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Adverb is the Part of Speech that qualifies an Adjective, a Verb or other Adverb. An Adverb does not qualify a Noun or a Pronoun. This work is done by an Adjective.

Adverbs can be divided in two categories; 1) Simple Adverbs and 2) Interrogative Adverbs.

1) Simple Adverbs: – Adverbs that simply qualify a Verb, an Adjective or other Adverb are called Simple Adverbs.

Simple Adverbs can be differentiated from each other depending on their meaning;

  • Adverbs of Manner or State or Quality: – This type of Adverbs shows in what manner a thing is done or in what state a thing exists; such as,

You did it well. You did it thus (in this way), You did it together. You did the work slowly, but wisely. You all did it alike (the same way). You acted nicely.

N.B:Adverbs belong to this class often formed by adding ‘ly’ to the Adjectives, like slow, slowly; wise, wisely; nice, nicely, soft, softly; happy, happily; etc.

  • Adverbs of Quantity: – This type of Adverbs shows to what extent a thing is done; such as,

You are quite brave. I have almost recovered. You are the only person who did the work.

He is very sick. You have talked enough.

This movie is far the best. I am a little annoyed with you.

I am extremely happy. They are entirely satisfied.

  • Adverbs of Numbers: – This type of Adverbs shows in what order or how often a thing is done.

I went there thrice. He came to my house once. He eats four times a day.

I go there sometimes. He often came. You came seldom.

I never went to his house. She came no more to my house. You went there again.

The kid brought firstly a pencil, secondly a chalk and thirdly a slate.

  • Adverbs of Time: – This type of Adverbs shows for how long or when a thing is done.

You did this before. I did it afterwards.

I have already done this. You did it long ago.

She was sick then, but is much better now.

You came early but went late. At last you came. I went soon.

You came at once. He has came to-day. They went yesterday.

You have to come hourly. I will go tomorrow.

I go to school daily.

Meanwhile my daughter will stay with me.

  • Adverbs of Place: – This type of Adverbs shows in what place or where a thing is done.

She is not here, but there. She was nowhere to be found.

You went backwards, but you should go forwards.

I stood before not behind.

Some of them stood near, others beyond and others around.

We will come here, if you will go there.

You stood aside. I will send you away. I looked for him everywhere.

  • Affirming or Denying Adverbs: – This type of Adverbs expresses denying or affirming of something; such as,

I shall surely come. She will probably go.

I answered yes. You answered no. Perhaps they will go.

2) Interrogative Adverbs: – Adverbs that are used for asking some questions are called Interrogative Adverbs; like,

¨      State or Manner: – How did you do this?

¨      Number: – How many days in a week?

¨      Quantity: – How far we have to go?

¨      Time: – How long will they stay here? When did they come?

¨      Place: – Where do you stay?

¨      Cause: – Why did you do that?

N.B: – Sometimes Interrogative Adverbs are used in a Relative sense; these are called Relative Adverbs. The antecedent Noun to which they are related may be either expressed or omitted.

  • The antecedent expressed  

This is the house where we stay.

Let me tell you the time when I shall go.

  • The antecedent omitted.

This is (= the house in which) where we stay.

Let me tell you when (= the time by which) I shall go.

Sometimes ‘the’ is used as a Relative Adverb; provided it should be place prior to an adverb or an adjective in Comparison Degree and provided a same combination of ‘the’ with a Comparative to come after it. This ‘the’ is distinct from the Definite Article.

The sooner you come, the better for you.

The more you study, the better result you can expect.

The nearer the bone, the sweeter the meat.

In the above sentences, the first ‘the’ is a Relative Adverb, the second ‘the’ is a Simple Adverb.

Lesson 7; Adjectives

  1. Posted by Bertha in Grammar |
  2. November 30th, 2009 |
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An Adjective qualifies a noun or adds something to the meaning of the noun in five different ways:-

1)      By showing quality of a thing or a person

2)      By showing quantity of a thing or a person

3)      By showing number of things or persons

4)      By showing that one thing or person is to be considered at a time

5)      By showing which thing or person is destined

According to the above mentioned ways, Adjectives can be categorized in five categories; such as,



An Adjective that shows the Quality or State of a thing or a person is called the Adjective of Quality; such as,

A sick man, a brave girl, a glass of cold water, a tiny tot.

The words in italics show quality of a thing or a person; therefore they are Adjectives of Quality.


Adjectives that show the Quantity, i.e. how much of a thing is meant are called the Adjectives of Quantity or State.

She ate little (a small quantity of) cake.

She ate less (a smaller quantity of) cake.

She ate least (the smallest quantity of) cake.

She ate much (a large quantity of) cake.

She ate more (a larger quantity of) cake.

She ate most (the largest quantity of) cake.

She ate no cake. She ate some cake.

She ate enough (sufficient quantity of) cake.

She ate all (the entire amount of) the cake.


Adjective that denotes some number is called Adjectives of Number. Adjectives of Number are divided into 1) Definite Numerals and 2) Indefinite Numerals.

1) Definite Numerals – Definite Numerals denote some exact number. These are subdivided into a) Cardinals and b) Ordinals.

a) Cardinals – Cardinals show how many objects there are; like, one, two, three, and four.

b) Ordinals – Ordinals show in what order an object stands; like, first, second, third, fourth.

Cardinals Ordinals
One First
Two Second
Three Third
Four Fourth
Five Fifth
Six Sixth
Seven Seventh
Eight Eighth
Nine Ninth
Ten Tenth

2) Indefinite Numerals – Indefinite Numerals show number of some kind but without indicating exactly what the number; such as, all, some; most, more; several; few, many.

Some people are poor. Many men are rich. Few works have been done. All men are mortal. More people went there today than yesterday.


Distributive Adjectives denote that the things or persons named are taken separately, singly or in separate lots. Adjectives of this class are each, every, neither and either.

Let every man come.

He told a lie each time.

I liked neither of the films.

Either of these shirts will suit you.


Adjectives that point out which thing or person is indicated are called Demonstrative Adjectives; such as, this pencil, these pencils; that book, those books.

Here, this and these indicate some pencil or pencils nearby; while that and those indicate some book or books further off.

N.B:- This and that are used for Singular nouns; while these and those are used for Plural nouns.

Demonstrative Adjectives are subdivided into, 1) Definite Demonstratives and 2) Indefinite Demonstratives.

1) Definite Demonstratives: – Adjectives that point to any particular thing or person are called Definite Demonstratives.

2) Indefinite Demonstratives: – Adjectives that do not point to any particular thing or person are called Indefinite Demonstratives.

Definite Demonstratives Indefinite Demonstratives

This, that; these, those; such;

the other; the other

A, an;

Any, one some, certain,

Other any other, another

A bird sat on a branch of this tree.

That tree does not bear the same flower as this.

Some boy (or a certain boy) is waiting there.

I will visit doctor on some other day.

I saw him one day on that side of the road.

Any individual can do such a thing like that.

N.B: – The’ is denoted as the Definite Article; and ‘a’ or ‘an’ is called Indefinite Article. ‘The’ is nothing but the shorter from of ‘this, these, that, those’; while ‘a’ or ‘an’ is the shorter form or ‘one’. Therefore, an Article is not a distinct Part of Speech; it is a form of Adjective.

The Number System

  1. Posted by Max in The Number System |
  2. November 25th, 2009 |
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The numbers like 1,2,3,… are used for counting and they are known as natural numbers. If two natural numbers are added, the resulting number will also be a natural number. However, subtraction of one natural number from another natural number may not result in another natural number, e.g. 2-6 = -4 which is not a natural number. This difficulty is overcome by the introduction of negative numbers -1, -2, -3,… and 0.
The set of natural numbers, zero and negative numbers constitute integers.

Rational numbers:
A rational number is the ratio of two integers p and q (p and q are either positive or negative) and are in the form p/q, where q is not equal to zero. Examples of natural numbers are 3/5, -7/3, 4. 4 is a rational number as 4 = 4/1.

Irrational numbers:
The numbers which are not rational are called irrational numbers. √2and pi cannot be expressed as ratio of 2 integers (as fractions) and hence they are irrational numbers. Their values are approximately 1.414… and 3.14159… which are non-terminating decimals.

Among irrational numbers, there are numbers which when converted to decimal form are non-terminating decimals. E.g.,
1/3 = 0.333…

In case of rational numbers, the decimal parts repeat themselves, whereas it is not the case in respect of irrational numbers.

The usual notations are:
Z defines the set of integers like -2, -1, 0,1, 2…
N defines the set of rational numbers like 2/3, -5/6, 5, …
R defines real numbers
C defines complex numbers.
Note: 0 is not taken to be a positive or negative integer, but it is a whole number (integer).

Even numbers:
Numbers that are multiples of 2 are even numbers, i.e. 2, 4, 6, 8, ….are even numbers. Numbers that are not multiples of 2 are odd numbers.

(i) In general 2n is an even number and 2n + 1 and 2n – 1 are odd numbers (where n is a whole number).

(ii) The sum or difference of 2 evem numbers is even,
e.g., 18 + 22 = 40
40 – 24 = 16

(iii) The sum of two odd numbers is even and the difference of two odd numbers is also even.
e.g., 25 + 31 = 56
45 – 29 = 16

(iv) Any power of an even number is even
e.g., 24 = 16; 63 = 216

(v) Any power of an odd number is odd
e.g., 32 = 9; 53 = 125

(vi) An even number multiplied by an even number is even
e.g., 6 x 4 = 24

(vii) An odd number multiplied by an odd number is odd
e.g., 3 x 7 = 21

(viii) An odd number multiplied by an even number is even
e.g., 7 x 6 = 42

Example: The sum of a two digit number and the number formed by reversing the digits is a perfect square. Find the numbers.

Given a number 29 with 2 digits, the number got by reversing the digits is 92.
29 could be written as 2×10 + 9
92 could be written as 9×10 + 2
The sum of the two numbers is 29 + 92 = 121 = 112
In general, if the digit in the ten’s place is x and the unit place is y, then the number is 10x + y.
The number on reversing becomes 10y + x.
Sum of the 2 numbers is
(10x + y) + (10y + x) = 11(x+y)
The maximum value of x or y can be 9.
Therefore, x+y= (9+9)
Implies, x+y = 18
Ii(x+y) must be a perfect square.
This is possible only when x+y = 11
The possible number of x and y are given by
(x,y) = (2,9) or (9,2)
(x,y) = (3,8) or (8,3)
(x,y) = (4,7) or (7,4)
(x,y) = (5,6) or (6,5)
Hence, the required numbers are 29,92; 38,83; 47,74; 56,65;
For example, 38 + 83 = 121 = 112
Consecutive numbers are those numbers, such that the difference of any number from the previous number is 1.
2,3,4,5,6,7,8,… are consecutive numbers
2,4,6,8,… are consecutive even numbers
3,5,7,9,… are consecutive odd numbers
Example: Convert the repeating decimal expansion 3.3333 a a rational number
Let x = 3.3333
10x = 33.33
Subtracting (1) from (2), we get
10x – x = (33.3333….-3.3333) = 33 – 3 = 30
i.e., 9x = 30
Implies, x = 30/9 = 10/3 = 3-1/3

Example: Express 2.5737373737373…. as a fraction of the form p/q
2.5737373737373… means the decimal part 73 repeats itself
Let x = 2.573737373… (i)
10x = 25.73737373… (ii)
1000x = 2573.737373… (iii)
Subtracting (ii) from (iii), we get
1000x – 10x = (2573.737373) – (2.5737373…)
= 2573 – 25 = 2348
i.e., 990x = 2548
Therefore, x = 2548/990 = 1274/495

Lesson 6; Pronouns: Kinds of Pronouns

  1. Posted by Bertha in Grammar |
  2. November 19th, 2009 |
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Pronoun is that parts of speech used instead of a Noun.

Nouns refer to a thing or a person and give name to it; Pronouns also refer to a thing or a person, but don’t give a name.

Instead of repeating a noun, which has been already understood or mentioned earlier, we often put another word, and this word is knows as a Pronoun. Pro means “instead of or for”.

Pronouns are used to avoid the repetition of nouns.

The significance of Pronouns is best understood by trying to do with no Pronouns.

It would sound so awkward; also being so boring, if we use the same Noun repeatedly. We can save this awkwardness by using Pronouns:-

Richard saw a spider on the table, this spider Richard thought may hurt Richard, unless Richard killed the spider with a paper-weight, this paper-weight Richard had in Richard’s hand.

The nouns in the above sentence can be replaced by Pronouns and it can be better expressed as below:-

Richard saw a spider on the table, which he thought may hurt him, unless he killed it with a paper-weight, which he had in his hand.

In the above sentence, ‘he’ and ‘him’ are Pronouns and used for Richard; the first ‘which’ stands for ‘spider’; the second ‘which’ is used for ‘paper-weight’; and ‘it’ is for ‘spider’.

Therefore, the primary use of a Pronoun is to stop repetition of Noun.

There are four types of Pronouns:

1)      Personal Pronouns: I, you, he, she etc.

2)      Relative Pronouns: who, which, as, that etc.

3)      Demonstrative Pronouns: that, this, one, such etc.

4)      Interogative Pronouns: which? who? what?


The pronouns stand for three persons are denoted as Personal Pronouns, such as -

a)      The First, which stands for the person speaking; like I, we.

b)      The Second, which stands for the person spoken to: like you.

c)      The Third, which stands for the thing or person spoken of; like it, he, she etc.

The First Person, Feminine or Masculine

Singular Plural
I We
Me Us
My, Mine Our, Ours

The Second Person, Feminine or Masculine

Singular Plural
Thou Ye or you
Thee You
Thine, Thy Your, Yours

The Third Person of Every Gender

Masculine Feminine Neuter All Genders
He She It They
Him Her It Them
His Her Its Their, Theirs

While, any of the above-mentioned pronouns show what or who is the possessor or owner of a thing, the pronouns are then called Possessives. Such pronouns are used 1) when leaded by preposition “of”; 2) when separated from a noun by a verb; 3) when the noun is not spoken:-

a) That pen of yours is broken.

b) This dress is yours. That pencil is mine.

c) My pen and yours (your pen) are both broken.

When “self” is added to a pronoun, the pronoun is then denoted as Reflexive.

I. The First Person

Singular Plural
Myself Ourselves

II. The Second Person

Singular Plural
Thyself Yourselves

III. The Third Person

Singular Singular Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter All Genders
Himself Herself Itself Themselves


The pronouns relate to other pronoun or noun, are called Relative Pronouns.

The pronoun or noun going before a Relative Pronoun is called an Antecedent.

Relative pronouns are mostly expressed by the word “which” or “who”.

Singular and Plural Singular and Plural
Masculine and Feminine Neuter





Whose or Of which

Examples of Relative Pronouns

a)      She lost the pen which I bought.

b)      I sold the car which I used for many years.

c)       That is the person whom I talked yesterday.

d)      We love those people who love us.

The above words in Italics are examples of relative pronouns.

N.B:  a) The word “which” is generally used for all sorts of living things only except men and women as well as things with no life.

b) The word “who” is generally used for men and women and is so of the feminine, masculine or common gender.

c) The Relative Pronoun is of the same gender, person and number as Antecedent.


A Pronoun that points to or demonstrates a noun is called a Demonstrative Pronoun. A demonstrative pronoun is used for the noun going before it. The noun is denoted as the Antecedent to that demonstrative pronoun.

The pronouns belong to the Demonstrative are this, these, that, those; such; one, none, ones.

This, these, that, those – Uses of the mentioned words as pronouns are explained below:

Play and work are both necessary for being well; this (= work) gives energy and that (= play) gives rest.

In this sentence, the word “this” refers to the latter, i.e. work and the word “that” refers to the former, i.e. play. You can see that ‘this’ or ‘that’ does not specify what or which work or play is referred; unlike Demonstrative Adjectives.

Such – The word ‘Such’ may be substituted for the noun in any number.

A)    He is the judge recruited to hear this case and as such (= as a recruited judge) he won’t talk to you before trial. (Singular).

B)     Presidents are made such (= the ministers) by the law and thus must be obeyed. (Plural).

One, none, and ones – While the antecedent (the noun) is in its Singular Number, ‘one’ is used. However, if the antecedent is in Plural Number, ‘ones’ is used. ‘None’ is the shortened form of ‘not one’.

A)    He won the first prize last year; but this year he did not win one (= a prize). (Singular).

B)     There are fifteen lazy students and twenty studious ones (= students) in our class. (Plural).

C)    She has a pen, but he has none (= not a pen).

Indefinite Demonstrative Pronouns

Sometimes we use Demonstrative pronouns indefinitely, i.e. we do not use them as substitutes for some nouns mentioned expressly, but for some nouns that can be easily understood from idiom or the context.

a)      One – This pronoun is used in the sense of any individual or every individual.

One must take care of one’s well-being =

A man (any and every individual) must take care of his well-being.

b) They – This pronoun is used for men in common, or a person whose name is deliberately hidden.

1)      They say (men in general) that honestly is the best policy.

2)      He told me (= a person whom I want to hide, told me) that you were the culprit.


Pronouns which ask questions are Interrogative Pronouns.

a)      Who told this?

b)      Which of these oranges is rotten?

c)      Whose pen is this?

d)      How are you?

e)      What did you ask?

f)        Of whom did you speak?

4 Steps to Reading Right

  1. Posted by Paula in Reading and writing skills |
  2. November 19th, 2009 |
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4 Steps to Reading Right

Reading can be much more beneficial when you are reading right. The good news is that it is just a matter of habit. You can change your habits with simple steps. Here’s how you do it

Absorb it well

The main problem with a bad reading habit is that you do not pay enough attention     to what you are reading. You can learn anything if you practice reading right.  The ‘preview’ technique is quite useful. In this technique, you glance through the paragraph first-and then start reading it. Try this approach:

Take a few seconds to review the paragraph. Look at the subtitles, titles and highlighted words. Glance at the graphs or illustrations. The first and last paragraphs of a book reveal a lot about it. Ask yourself questions about the main theme of the book, the purpose of the author etc. Sounds tough? Try it once and you will be able to tell the difference.

Ask questions

Another useful trick is to to approach the book in a questioning manner-as if you are trying to look for something. Turn the title of the book into a question-you will be amazed at the result!

For instance, if you are reading a book about the difference between eubacteria and archaebacteria, try to picture the title as a question.

What is the rationale behind this approach? Well, research shows that a person concentrates more on things which are goal oriented. Remember, if you are aiming for nothing, you will get just that-nothing!

Don’t talk to yourself

Another aspect we stress on when we are teaching kids to read right relates to vocalizing. You can do it in two ways:

  1. Reading the book aloud
  2. Talking to yourself even as you are reading.

Sounds familiar? That is because these are the most common mistake people make when they are reading. It reduces your speed over a period of time. Consider this; the average speed at which a person speaks is about 250 words per minute. A person reads much faster than he speaks. However, when you talk to yourself while reading, you bring the speed of your reading down to the level of your speech. What does that translate into? You end up spending more time on a book-time you could use elsewhere!

Read in groups

No, we are not talking about the group you hang out with! We are not talking about the geeks at your school either!

When you are reading, try to look at the words in groups. Poor readers stop frequently, and need to read every single word individually. Not only does this slow you down, it also strips away your interest in what you are reading. The first step in reading right is to read groups of words together. You should read phrases together. This will help your mind store the meaning away for future use. It enriches your vocabulary, teaches you the right application for those words and helps you read faster!

Reading right is not something you are born with-it is something you develop! Try the tips above and get more out of your books!

Here’s some more.. learn to speed read in instants


Knowledge That A 12th Grader Should Have

  1. Posted by Max in Twelfth Grade |
  2. November 18th, 2009 |
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Language Arts

  • English literature
  • Shakespeare
  • Literary, social, and political heritage of England
  • Literature of the 1900’s
  • World literature
  • Cross-cultural literature
  • The theatre
  • Nature of tragedy and comedy
  • Techniques of acting
  • Film as an art form
  • Critical and evaluative reading
  • Current periodical literature
  • Mass communication
  • Comparative study of mass media
  • Radio and television
  • Listening skills
  • Parliamentary procedures
  • Identifying verbals
  • Report writing
  • Writing social and business letters
  • Writing book reviews, précis, essays
  • Writing term papers
  • Bibliography development

Social Studies

  • Principles of U. S. government
  • The democratic ideal
  • Basic documents of the U. S.
  • Agriculture in the U. S.
  • Urbanization
  • Conservation
  • Business and industry in the U. S.
  • American party system
  • Propaganda and public opinion
  • Comparative governments
  • Comparative economic systems
  • Consumer education
  • Crime and delinquency
  • Psychology
  • Labor-management relations
  • Economic concepts and theories
  • Taxation and finance
  • Distribution and exchange of goods and services
  • International relations
  • American foreign policy
  • International organizations
  • Public education
  • Women’s role in today’s society
  • Family economics and management



  • Derivative of a function
  • Logarithmic and trigonometric functions
  • Indeterminate terms
  • Computation of derivatives
  • Rate of a change of quantity
  • Maxima and minima
  • Integrals
  • Length of curves
  • Volume and surface areas
  • Computer analysis of graphs

Advanced Algebra

  • Sets of numbers
  • Binomial theorem
  • Progressions
  • Complex numbers
  • Theory of equations
  • Permutations
  • Functions and their graphs
  • Combinations
  • Probability
  • Determinants
  • Inequalities
  • Matrix algebra
  • Mathematical inductions
  • The derivative

Probability and Statistics

  • Tabular data
  • Graphs
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Quartiles and percentiles
  • Measures of dispersion
  • Simple correlation
  • Statistical inference
  • Permutations
  • Combinations
  • Binomial theorem



  • Electricity and magnetism
  • Photoelectric effect
  • Heat
  • Light and optics
  • Sound and acoustics
  • Wave motion
  • Quantum theory
  • Relativity
  • Force
  • Mechanics
  • Space, time, and motion
  • Work, energy, and power
  • Electronics
  • Nuclear energy
  • Nuclear physics
  • Solid-state physics

Knowledge That A 11th Grader Should Have

  1. Posted by Max in Eleventh Grade |
  2. November 18th, 2009 |
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Language Arts

  • American literature
  • Cross-cultural literature
  • Analysis of plays
  • Vocabulary of poetry
  • Critical and evaluative reading
  • Propaganda techniques
  • Mass communication
  • Advertising
  • Music and painting
  • Architecture and sculpture
  • Listening skills
  • Vocabulary development
  • Grammar
  • Story writing
  • Editorial writing
  • Journalistic writing
  • Writing term papers
  • Proofreading symbols
  • Use of Reader’s Guide and other reference aids, both print and electronic

Social Studies

  • Age of exploration and discovery
  • Colonization of America
  • A new nation is born
  • Constitution of the United States
  • Development of a new nation
  • Period of nationalism
  • Sectionalism
  • American Civil War and Reconstruction
  • United States as a world power
  • Struggle for women’s rights
  • World War I
  • The Great Depression
  • World War II
  • The Cold War
  • The nuclear era
  • Civil rights
  • Delinquency and crime
  • Psychology
  • Problems of mental health
  • Urbanization
  • Public education
  • Role of women in today’s society


Algebra II

  • Relations and functions
  • Square roots, surds, radicals
  • Rational roots
  • Linear equations and analytic geometry
  • Quadratic equations
  • Binomial theorem
  • Imaginary numbers
  • Exponents and radicals
  • Logarithms
  • Progressions
  • Higher-degree equations
  • Vectors
  • Determinants
  • Permutations, combinations, and simple probability
  • Estimation and approximation


  • Solutions of right triangles
  • Use of table and interpolation
  • Measurement of angles
  • Properties of trigonometric functions
  • Complex numbers and vectors
  • Concept of a limit
  • Graphs of functions
  • Solutions of oblique triangles
  • Logarithms
  • Identities and equations
  • General triangle solutions


  • Matter and its behaviour
  • Carbon and its compounds
  • Formulas and chemical equations
  • Acids, bases, salts
  • Atomic theory
  • Periodic law
  • Water and solutions
  • Chemical bonding
  • Molecular theory
  • Equilibrium and kinetics
  • Spontaneous reactions
  • Titrations
  • Ionization and ionic solutions
  • Colloids, suspensoids, and emulsoids
  • Oxidation-reduction
  • Non-metals
  • Metals and alloys
  • Electrochemistry
  • Energy: forms, chemical changes, and measurement
  • Nuclear reactions and radioactivity

Knowledge That A 10th Grader Should Have

  1. Posted by Max in Tenth Grade |
  2. November 18th, 2009 |
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Language Arts

  • American literary heritage
  • Cross-cultural literature
  • Folklore and ballads
  • Regional customs, traditions, folkways, and language
  • Literary interpretation and critique
  • Novel, short story, and essay
  • Understanding poetry: lyric poetry, and the sonnet
  • Drama
  • Distinguishing between fact and opinion
  • Persuasion and argumentation
  • Listening skills
  • Public speaking and debate
  • Extending dictionary skills
  • History of the alphabet
  • Vocabulary and etymology
  • Geographical dialects
  • Grammar
  • History of writing
  • Techniques of writing
  • Journal writing
  • Writing short stories, poetry, and plays
  • Writing term papers
  • Constructing footnotes

Social Studies

      • Prehistoric peoples
      • The earliest civilizations
      • The early Greeks
      • Early India and China
      • The Islamic world
      • The Middle Ages
      • African civilizations
      • Civilization in the Americas
      • The Renaissance
      • The rise and fall of monarchies
      • Birth of modern democracy
      • The French Revolution
      • The Industrial Revolution
      • Nationalism
      • Imperialism
      • Science and industry
      • The world wars
        - World War I
        - Between world wars
        - World War II
      • The Cold War
      • The Vietnam War
      • The search for peace
      • Democratic ideals and values
      • The rise and fall of Communism
      • The collapse of the Soviet Union
      • World interdependence
      • World problems and issues
      • Role of women in today’s societies


      • Origins and uses of geometry
      • Terms, postulates, theorems
      • Sets
      • Nature of proof
      • Inductive and deductive reasoning
      • Ratio and proportion
      • Algebra in geometry
      • Angle relationships
      • Parallel and perpendicular lines
      • Congruent triangles
      • Right triangles
      • Pythagorean Theorem
      • Circles
      • Polygons
      • Relationships between circles and polygons
      • Mensuration theory
      • Measurement of geometric figures
      • Simple constructions
      • Loci
      • Transformational geometry
      • Introduction of symbolic logic
      • Coordinate geometry
      • Trigonometric functions of angles greater than 90
      • Degrees
      • Special angle relationships
      • Problem solving with geometry


      • Characteristics of life
      • Classification
      • History of plants and animals
      • Microscopic life
      • Simple organisms: algae, bacteria, fungi
      • Vertebrate life
      • Mammals and birds
      • Plant life
      • Photosynthesis
      • Cells
      • Protein synthesis
      • Genetics and heredity
      • DNA-RNA
      • Genetic engineering
      • Reproduction and growth
      • Human biology
      • Nutrition and digestion
      • Behavior
      • Conservation of human resources
      • Environmental issues
      • Energy in ecosystems
      • Scientific method
      • Biology and space travel
      • Disease and disease control

Knowledge That A 8th Grader Should Have

  1. Posted by Max in Eighth Grade |
  2. November 18th, 2009 |
  3. Comments off

English Language Arts

  • Read, understand, and analyze a wide variety of fiction and non fiction texts
  • Use reading comprehension strategies to deepen their understanding of texts
  • Identify and analyze literary elements in the genres of poetry, fiction, and drama
  • Participate actively and thoughtfully in class discussions by posing questions, making contributions, and listening to the ideas of others
  • Give oral presentations that are organized, coherent, and demonstrate an awareness of audience
  • Understand and acquire new vocabulary by using context clues as well as knowledge of Greek and Latin roots
  • Use the writing process, including drafting, revising, editing, and publishing, to produce writing that demonstrates a sense of audience, purpose, and craft
  • Produce a variety of written compositions that demonstrate the development of voice, clear focus, coherent organization, and sufficient detail (including stories, scripts, poems, research reports, as well as narrative and analytical essays)
  • Use the conventions of Standard English in writing, revising, and editing

Social Studies

  • Articulate the importance of our founding documents and their impact on America in both the past and present
  • Explain, analyze, and evaluate how social, political, cultural, geographic and economic differences led to sectional conflicts resulting in the Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Explain and analyze the contributions of key groups of people, including Africans, Irish, Chinese, in the building of America
  • Critically evaluate different perspectives of the same historical events
  • Distinguish historical fact from opinion
  • Identify long-term and short-term cause and effect relationships
  • Locate and interpret primary source materials
  • Research a topic in depth using a variety of resources, including print and internet

Visual Arts

  • Use a variety of media, materials, and techniques to create art
  • Observe the world in inventive ways
  • Understand art within historical and cultural context
  • Describe the elements and principles of design
  • Draft, revise, polish, and exhibit work
  • Respond critically to artwork
  • Know that art may serve many purposes
  • Recognize the roles of artists in communities
  • See the effects of style
  • Use technology in art
  • Make connections with between visual art and other areas of learning


Number Sense

  • Apply the rules of powers and roots to the solution of problems, and extend the Order of Operations to include positive integer exponents and square roots


  • Translate real life situations into linear equations and inequalities ; use various methods to solve these equations, including graphing, combining equations, and substitution
  • Construct tables, graphs, and symbolic equations that represent linear relationships
  • Represent exponential growth and decay with tables, graphs, words and symbols (i.e. exponents and scientific notation)
  • Solve quadratic functions with tables, graphs, factoring, and the quadratic formula
  • Analyze various kinds of equations to identify the patterns of change and represent this information in tables and graphs

Measurement and Geometry

  • Determine when lines are parallel or perpendicular by looking at patterns in their graphs and equations and at the coordinate points that satisfy their equations
  • Use and apply geometric properties of plane figures, including congruence and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve a variety of problems

Data, Statistics, and Probability

  • Use the process of statistical investigation to represent, find measures, and solve problems involving statistical data
  • Determine the experimental and theoretical probability of simple events


Physical Science

Forces and Motion

  • the motion of an object can be described by its position, direction, and speed;
  • when forces are balanced, motion does not change; when they are unbalanced, forces transfer energy to or from an object causing change in motion; and
  • Energy exists in different interchangeable forms including mechanical (kinetic and potential), heat, chemical, electromagnetic, and nuclear.

Earth Science


  • Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion, and these motions explain such phenomena as the day, year, phases of the moon, eclipses and seasons;
  • Gravity is a theory that helps to explain the motion and formation of objects in the universe;
  • Our sun, which is a medium-sized star, is one star of billions of stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way, which is one of billions of galaxies in the universe

Life Science

Genetics and Evolution

  • Heredity is the passage of genetic instructions in genes from parents to offspring;
  • all living things reproduce, asexually or sexually, which enables the continuation of species; and
  • Evolution is a process of change in a population of living things over time, driven by the process of natural selection.

Knowledge That A 7th Grader Should Have

  1. Posted by Max in Seventh Grade |
  2. November 17th, 2009 |
  3. Comments off

Language And Literature

  • Reading
  • Communication
  • Writing
  • Research

Social Studies

Geography, World Civilization and American Civilization

Fine Arts


  • Number and Operations
  • Algebra
  • Geometry
  • Measurement
  • Data Analysis and Probability


  • Inquiry and Process Skills
  • Life Science
  • Earth Science
  • Physical Science
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