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Archive for October, 2009

Lesson 4; Nouns: Gender

  1. Posted by Bertha in Grammar |
  2. October 21st, 2009 |
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The difference in the type of a Noun that shows whether we are talking to a female or a male is denoted as Gender.

There are four types of Genders; the Masculine Gender, the Feminine Gender, the Common Gender and the Neuter Gender.

  • Masculine Gender: Names of the males are of the Masculine Gender, such as man, hero, actor etc.
  • Feminine Gender: Names of the females are of the Feminine Gender; such as woman, heroine, actress etc.
  • Common Gender: Names that can be given either to a female or to a male are of the Common Gender; such as child, parent, student etc.
  • Neuter Gender: Things with no life can’t be either female or male; so, names of those things are of the Neuter Gender; such as chair, table, book etc.

There are three different methods to distinguish the Feminine Noun from the Masculine Noun;

1) By a change of the word

2) By a change of the ending

3) By adding a word after or before.

  • By a change of the word

Masculine – Feminine

Husband – Wife

Nephew – Niece

Brother – Sister

Cock – Hen

Wizard – Witch

Son – Daughter

King – Queen

Gentleman – Lady

Boy – Girl

Bull – Cow

  • By a change of the ending

Masculine – Feminine

Author – Authoress

Lad – Lass

Hero – Heroine

Widow – Widower

Master – Mistress

God – Goddess

Duke – Duchess

Lion – Lioness

Shepherd – Shepherdess

Patron – Patroness

  • By adding a word after or before

Masculine – Feminine

Land-lord – Land-lady

Grandpa – Grandma

Pea-cock – Pea-hen

Bride-groom – Bride

Man-servant – Maid-servant

He-goat – She-goat

Examples of Nouns in Common Gender

Singer – male or female

Parent – father or mother

Cat – male or female

Teacher – master or mistress

Deer – stag or hind

Bird- cock or hen

Cub – male or female

Fish – milter or spawner

Pupil – male or female

Servant – man or maid

Enemy (or friend) – male or female enemy (or friend)

Orphan – boy or girl whose parents are dead

Infant or baby – male or female infant or baby

Quick Tips on Math-Unbelievably Simple Shortcuts

  1. Posted by Paula in Maths |
  2. October 17th, 2009 |
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Are you constantly confused by those divisibility questions? Do multiplication and tables leave you cold? Steady on. Mathematics can be fun too, once you realize the magic hidden behind those numbers. If you have always found the subject unfriendly, let us teach you a trick or two that will really impress you. Ready or not? Here we go…

• Let us go through a little tip about divisibility. Have you looked at a long number and wondered whether it was divisible by 4? There is an easy way of finding it out.

1. Just take the last digit in the number and

2. Add it to two times the second last number. You have the answer!

3. Let’s take up an example:
Take the number 212334436. Is it divisible by 4? Let’s see. Take the last digit in the number i.e. 6 and add it to twice the second last number i.e. 3. Then, 6+ (2X3) =12. Find out if this is divisible by 4. In the example above, it is. Therefore the number 212334436  IS divisible by 4!

4. You can even use this tiny trick to find out whether a particular year is a leap year or not. Try it out yourself, right now! We TOLD you it’s fun!

• Let’s try out another fun trick! Have you always been confused by the relation between kilos and pounds? There is a simple way out. Suppose you are trying to convert kilos into pounds. How would you go about it in the shortest manner possible? It’s simple.

1. Just double the kilos and add a decimal point to the answer.

2. Then, just add the two together.

3. Let’s take another example:
For instance, when you try to convert 86 kilos, just double it. That will give you 172. Now, add a decimal point to 172, (or just divide it by 10). That gives you 17.2. Now add the two numbers, i.e. 172 and 17.2. The result is 189.2. So, 86 kilos would give you 189.2 pounds. Ridiculously simple, isn’t it?

• Finally, a useful trick that will help you in temperature conversions! Here is an easy way to convert Fahrenheit to centigrade and vice versa. You’ve got to try this out!

1. When you are converting Fahrenheit to centigrade, just take away 30 from it and then divide by 2. You have your answer in a jiffy.

Want an example? Try this:

74 degree Fahrenheit -30=44. Divide this by 2 and you have 22. So, 74 degree is 22 degree centigrade.

2. If you want to convert a temperature from centigrade to Fahrenheit, just do the reverse. Just double the number and add 2 to it. Isn’t that fun?
There are a number of shortcuts you can use to make mathematics easier and fun. The easy steps we detailed above are just some of the tricks used by experts to get that edge over others. Try out these math shortcuts today and stun everyone with your speed!

Great Tips on College Essays

  1. Posted by Paula in Reading and writing skills |
  2. October 15th, 2009 |
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So you’ve done all your homework and are gearing up for that admission to your favorite college. You have all the grades required and all the documents ready. Are you going to zip off that essay in about five minutes? Spare a thought. College essays are meant to gain an insight into you as a person. So, handle them with care. Here are a few pointers you might like to go through:

The Approach to the College Essay

• Make it unique. If you are asked to write about your favorite book or character, try to make it personalized. For instance, the college is not looking for an abstract description of the book. Highlight your favorite parts of the book and describe why you like them. This should give the examiners a good idea about you as a person, so take some care. Remember, the essay and the interview can be used to express your individuality very effectively.

• Having said that, there is no alternative to directions, so follow them carefully. Read the topic carefully and try to understand what the college essay is about. If an essay is about your favorite activity, its purpose is to understand what you enjoy doing when you are not studying. Focus on that and not on a narrative about your favorite team!

• Let’s take up another example. If you are asked to write about a tragedy, try and focus on your experiences about it and not on describing it in detail. The purpose of every college essay is to find out how well you write. It is not really about how tragic a life you have had!

The Layout of Your College Essay

• It is very important to think about the pattern you are going to follow when you are writing. The best way to go about it is to have an outline ready. You can even brainstorm and think about the topic at first. Focus on what you know about it. If you are not very sure, read up. There is no shortcut to anything in life, and this is no different.
• Follow directives about spacing, margins and style very carefully. If you are asked to use white paper, make sure you do that.
• Your opening sentence needs to be compelling, so pay a lot of attention to it.
• Make sure you check the essay thoroughly. Pay attention to spelling, punctuation and grammar. You could even ask a friend to read it aloud, so that you can spot problems with it.
• Your essay should always have a thesis statement, main statements and the transitions. Once you have this layout in place, your job will be much easier.
• Pay attention to details. If you are repeating words, make sure you replace them well.
A college essay is all about creating a balance between your individuality and the specifications required. Take some time out for it and give it the right attention.

Lesson 3; Nouns: Kinds of Nouns

  1. Posted by Bertha in Grammar |
  2. October 12th, 2009 |
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There are five kinds of Nouns; 1) Proper Noun, 2) Common Noun, 3) Material Noun, 4) Collective Noun and 5) Abstract Noun.

In this lesson, we will have a brief discussion on different kinds of nouns.

1)      Proper Noun: When the noun denotes one specific thing, place, or person as distinct from all others, it is called Proper Noun; like, John (name of a person), London (name of a place), and Bible (name of a book).

N.B. – A Proper Noun should always be commenced with capital letter.

2)      Common Noun: When the noun does not denote any particular person or thing; and is common to all things or persons of the same class, it is called Common Noun; like, ‘man’, ‘city’, ‘book’.

Here, ‘man’ denotes any and every man. ‘City’ denotes all the cities in this world and ‘book’ points out all books.

N.B. – Sometimes, a Proper Noun acts as a Common Noun, when it’s used in a general sense; like,

He is the Einstein (= the greatest mathematician) of this century.

3)      Material Noun: A Material Noun denotes a substance or a matter of which a thing is made; like,

Air is lighter then water.

Fish is a good food.

Cow eats grass.

Rice is a staple food.

Fire burns.

Book is made of paper.

We write with ink.

All the italics words are examples of Material Noun.

N.B. – According to the sense, the same word can be used as a Common Noun or a Material Noun.

a)      “Cow gives milk”. In this sentence, ‘milk’ is represented as a Common Noun.

b)      “Milk is a balanced food”. In this sentence, ‘milk’ is a Material Noun.

4)      Collective Noun: When the noun denotes a group or a collection of objects, considered as single complete whole, it is called Collective Noun. These objects can be animals, emotions, people, concepts, inanimate things or other things. For example;

A hive of bees; there can be millions of bees, but only one hive. In this sentence, ‘bees’ is the Common Noun that denotes all bees, but hive is a Collective Noun; since it stands for all bees in it and not for any particular bee.

5)      Abstract Noun: When the noun denotes some state, action or quality apart from anything having quality, etc. Abstract nouns can’t be touched, smelt, heard, tasted or seen; like,

We know that milk is white. We also know that tooth is white. We can so talked about whiteness apart from tooth or milk or anything which is white. Therefore, whiteness is the abstract noun in both the sentences.

State – hardness, bondage, poverty, etc

Action – choice, laughter, sight, etc.

Quality – height, honesty, nobility, etc.

N.B. – A same word may act as an Abstract Noun or a Common Noun, as per the sense. If an Abstract Noun is used as a Common Noun, it means A) the person having the quality, or B) the thing to which the state, quality or action belongs:-

Instances of Persons

Witness – 1. Testimony or evidence (Abstract Noun)

2. The person who gives evidence (Common Noun)

Beauty – 1. The state or quality of being beautiful (Abstract Noun)

2. Who possesses beauty (Common Noun)

Instances of Things

Speech – 1. The sense of speaking (Abstract Noun)

2. The word spoken (Common Noun)

Judgment1. The act of judging (Abstract Noun)

2. The decision given by judge (Common Noun)

Formation of Abstract Nouns

Abstract Nouns may be formed from Common Nouns, Adjectives or Verbs.

Abstract Nouns from Common Nouns

Common Noun          Abstract Noun

King                              Kingship

Rascal                           Rascality

Slave                             Slavery

Captain                         Captaincy

Agent                            Agency

Friend                           Friendship

Abstract Nouns from Adjectives

Adjective                     Abstract Noun

Cold                               Coldness

Wide                              Width

Sweet                             Sweetness

Proud                             Pride

Brave                             Bravery

Great                             Greatness

Abstract Nouns from Verbs

Verbs Abstract Noun

Serve                             Service

Please                            Pleasure

Protect                           Protection

Conceal                         Concealment

Expect                           Expectation

Free                               Freedom

In two ways, a Material, Abstract or Proper noun can be changed into a Common Noun; either by putting an article (“the” or “a”) before it, or by transforming it into plural number.

Proper Noun                                            Common noun

Daniel was an educated Jew.                    1. A Daniel came to decision.

2. There are hundreds of Daniels.

Abstract Noun 1. Abraham was the justice of peace. 

Justice is a dignified virtue.                        2. There were five justices present in the court.

Material Noun 1. I ate the mango on the table

Mango is a nutritious fruit.                         2. Let me eat one of the mangoes.