Question: A Power Company is interested in installing hydropower in the Horseshoe Reservoir. From the resource available, they decided to install 10 hp impulse type Pelton Turbine, which rotates at 700 rpm. The generator needs to produce electricity at 60 HZ (rev/sec) to supply power to the grid. Design ( including size and material) the following components for this application. Use 99% Reliability. Design;
Answer: Over the last decade, renewable energy resources like hydropower become a lot of well-liked thanks to the enlarging environmental awareness. Integration of hydropower by the utilization of assorted sensible techniques of load management can enhance the system potency by decreasing the big value of bills of electricity used. Therefore, with the increasing demand for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) additional enhances its quality and unlocks other ways for people to utilize this low-cost energy during this valuable world. But still, there's a desire to search out economical and professional ways that to relish these RES solely. The prediction of the International Energy Agency (IEA) confirms that by 2050, the accumulative international photovoltaic cell capability can reach around 3000 GW and meet St Martin's Day of the demand for international electricity.
There is a risk of running down of common assets like coal, gas, and fuel; time isn't so distant when a serious decrease in the characteristic assets will be confronted. In this way, proficient utilization of these assets is a key course to manage the regularly expanding emergency in vitality segment. Natural mindfulness from nearby and outside stages has made the perfect power request dynamically critical. Coordination of sustainable power source assets in the existing framework is going wild; consequently, appropriate outcomes are not accomplished yet because of the absence of experts. There are numerous people talking a shot at RES with zero associate of the current best in class; in any case, legitimate planning and establishment can prompt a more solid framework utilizing keen matrix.
Let us take a hypothetical install 10 hp impulse type Pelton Turbine, which rotates at 700 rpm. The generator needs to produce electricity at 60 HZ (rev/sec) to supply power to the grid establish in the Horseshoe Reservoir.. Geographically the location is situated at Maricopa / Yavapai counties, Arizona, United States with 33.9858° N, 111.7212° W and approximate weather of the selected location is about 23 °C, Wind NW at 14 km/h, 44% Humidity.
SPUR GEAR DESIGN
Spur gear transmissions are broadly utilized in present day industry giving, other than some different focal points, high estimations of the proficiency. Be that as it may, because of the expanding vitality costs and ecological necessities, the power misfortunes turn into an imperative structure factor which ought to be diminished however much as could reasonably be expected, for which they should be evaluated as precisely as conceivable in the plan steps.
SPUR GEAR CALCULATIONS PINION GEAR
No. Teeth 21 21 N = Number of teeth ( t = pinion T = gear)
Diametral Pitch (DP) 4.23
Circular Pitch (Inch) 0.7427
Circular Pitch (mm) 18.8644
Module (Inch) 0.2364
Module (mm) 6.0047
Pressure Angle 20
Pitch Diameter 4.9645 126.0993 4.9645 126.0993 Pitch Diameter = N / DP
Outside Diameter 5.4374 138.1087 5.4374 138.1087 OD = PCD + 2 * Corrected Addendum
Correction Factor 0.00000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Std. kp = 0.4 * (1 - (t / T))
Std. Tooth Thickness 0.3713 9.4322 Std. Circular Tooth Thickness = (0.5 X PI) / DP
Backlash Allowance Backlash Allowance From Chart.
Centre Distance 4.9645 126.0993
INCHES mm INCHES mm
Fig. -Spur gear design
In view of the synchronous event of torsional shear stresses and typical worries because of twisting, the pressure investigation of a pole for all intents and purposes dependably includes the utilization of a joined pressure approach. The prescribed methodology for shaft structure and investigation is the bending vitality hypothesis of failure. Vertical shear pushes and direct typical worries because of pivotal burdens may likewise happen. On short shafts or on bits of shafts where no twisting or torsion happens, such anxieties might be dominant. The explicit assignments to be performed in the structure and investigation of a pole rely upon the pole's proposed plan notwithstanding the way of stacking and support. In light of this, coming up next is a prescribed general methodology for the plan of a pole.
The power applied on a rigging tooth amid power transmission acts ordinary (opposite) to the involutetooth profile. It is advantageous for the investigation of shafts to consider the rectangular parts of this power acting in the outspread and extraneous headings. It is most helpful to process the digressive power, Wt, straightforwardly from the realized torque being transmitted by the apparatus. For U.S. Standard units,
Calculation of Torque :
T = 63000(P/n)
= 900 lb.in
Here, T=900, D=4.96
So, Wt= 900/(4.96/2) = (900/2.48)
Radial Forces Wr = Wt tan Φ
and there is no need to compute the normal force at all. For gears, the pressure angle is typically 141 /2°, 20°, or 25°.
A key is a machinery component placed at the interface between a shaft and the hub of a power-transmitting element for the purpose of transmitting torque. The key is demountable to facilitate assembly and disassembly of the shaft system. It is installed in an axial groove machined into the shaft, called a keyseat.
The key and the keyseat for a specific application are normally planned after the pole distance across is indicated by the strategies for Chapter 12. At that point, with the pole width as a guide, the span of the key is chosen from Table 11– 1. The main residual factors are the length of the key and its material. One of these can be indicated, and the necessities for the other would then be able to be registered.
Regularly the length of a key is indicated to be a significant part of the center length of the component in which it is introduced to accommodate great arrangement and stable activity. However, in the event that the keyseat in the pole is to be in the region of other geometric changes, for example, bear filets and ring grooves, it is essential to give some hub leeway between them with the goal that the impacts of the pressure focuses are not exacerbated.
Nominal shaft diameter Key dimensions Nominal shaft diameter Key dimensions
Over (in) to-including (in) Width, W (in) Height, H (in) Over (mm) to-including (mm) Width, W (mm) Height, H (mm)
0.3125 0.4375 0.09375 0.09375 6 8 2 2
0.4375 0.5625 0.125 0.125 8 10 3 3
0.5625 0.875 0.1875 0.1875 10 12 4 4
0.875 1.25 0.25 0.25 12 17 5 5
1.25 1.375 0.3125 0.3125 17 22 6 6
1.375 1.75 0.375 0.375 22 30 8 7
1.75 2.25 0.5 0.5 30 38 10 8
2.25 2.75 0.625 0.625 38 44 12 8
2.75 3.25 0.75 0.75 44 50 14 9
3.25 3.75 0.875 0.875 50 58 16 10
3.75 4.5 1 1 58 65 18 11
4.5 5.5 1.25 1.25 65 75 20 12
5.5 6.5 1.5 1.5 75 85 22 14
DESIGN OF BEARING
The motivation behind a bearing is to help a heap while allowing relative movement between two components of a machine. The term moving contact orientation alludes to the wide assortment of heading that utilization round balls barrel shaped rollers, or some other sort of roller between the stationary and the moving components. The most well-known use for course is to help a pivoting shaft, opposing simply spiral burdens, or a mix of outspread and hub (push) loads. A few course are
intended to convey just pushed burdens. Most course are utilized in applications including pivot, however some are utilized in straight movement applications.
The heap connected to a moving contact bearing goes through the external race to the moving components (balls or rollers) and afterward to the inward race, bringing about powers applied on little regions of contact. Contact worries of around 300 000 psi (2070 MPa) are normal. To withstand such high burdens, the balls, rollers, and races are ordinarily produced using hard, high-quality steel or fired. Other metallic materials utilized incorporate some titanium/nickel composites and Monel metal (combinations of principally nickel, copper, and cobalt). Where lighter burdens are experienced or when protection from consumption by specific materials is needed, plastic bearings can be used.
The most generally utilized bearing material is SAE 52100 steel having a high carbon substance of 0.95% to 1.10% alongside 1.3% to 1.6% chromium, 0.25% to 0.45% manganese, 0.2% to 0.35% silicon, and other alloying components in low, however controlled, sums. Pollutions are deliberately limited. The steel is through solidified to the scope of 58 to 65 HRC to enable it to oppose high contact pressure. Some apparatus steels, especially M1 and M50, are additionally utilized. Steel composites, for example, SAE 3310, 4620, and 8620, unfeeling via carburizing to accomplish high surface hardness and an extreme center, are in some cases utilized. Watchful control of case profundity is required to withstand basic subsurface anxieties. Some more daintily stacked direction and those presented to destructive conditions are produced using SAE 440C tempered steel.
Recommended Design Life for Bearings
Application Design life L10, h
Domestic appliances, instruments, medical apparatus 1000–2000
Aircraft engines 1000–4000
Agricultural equipment, hoists, construction machines 3000–6000
Elevators, industrial fans, multipurpose gearing, rotary crushers, cranes 8000–15 000
Electric motors, industrial blowers, general industrial machines, conveyors 20 000–30 000
Pumps and compressors, textile machinery, rolling mill drives 40 000–60 000
Critical equipment in continuous, 24-h operation; power plants, ship drives 100 000–200 000
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