Question: Compare sex deter........ Edit
Answer: Dosage compensation is a hypothetical genetic regulatory mechanism which operates to equalize the phenotypic expression of characteristics determined by genes on the X chromosome so that they are equally expressed in the human XY male and the XX female. Species can have different mechanisms of dosage compensation. In human females (XX), one chromosome is inactivated, resulting in a heterochromatic and largely genetically inactive Barr body. X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the two copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated. The inactive X chromosome is silenced by it being packaged in such a way that it has a transcriptionally inactive structure called heterochromatin. As female mammals have two X chromosomes, X-inactivation prevents them from having twice as many X chromosome gene products as males, which only possess a single copy of the X chromosome.
Drosophila males (XY) double the expression of genes along the X chromosome. In C. elegans hermaphrodites (XX), both X chromosomes are partially repressed. Any of these mechanisms results in balancing the relative gene expression between males and females (or, in the case of C. elegans, hermaphrodites and males).
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