Question: List and describe............ Edit
Answer: Post-transcriptional regulation is the control of gene expression at the RNA level, therefore between the transcription and the translation of the gene.
After being produced, the stability and distribution of the different transcripts is regulated (post-transcriptional regulation) by means of RNA binding protein (RBP) that control the various steps and rates of the transcripts: events such as alternative splicing, nuclear degradation (exosome), processing, nuclear export (three alternative pathways), sequestration in DCP2-bodies for storage or degradation, and ultimatelytranslation. These proteins achieve these events thanks to a RNA recognition motif (RRM) that binds a specific sequence or secondary structure of the transcripts, typically at the 5’ and 3’ UTR of the transcript.
Modulating the capping, splicing, addition of a Poly(A) tail, the sequence-specific nuclear export rates and in several contexts sequestration of the RNA transcript occurs in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes. This modulation is a result of a protein or transcript which in turn is regulated and may have an affinity for certain sequences.
• Capping changes the five prime end of the mRNA to a three prime end by 5'-5' linkage, which protects the mRNA from 5' exonuclease, which degrades foreign RNA. The cap also helps in ribosomal binding.
• Splicing removes the introns, noncoding regions that are transcribed into RNA, in order to make the mRNA able to create proteins. Cells do this by spliceosomes binding on either side of an intron, looping the intron into a circle and then cleaving it off. The two ends of the exons are then joined together.
• Addition of poly(A) tail otherwise known as polyadenylation. Junk RNA is added to the 3' end, and acts as a buffer to the 3' exonuclease in order to increase the half life of mRNA. In addition, a long poly(A) tail can increase translation. Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds to a long poly(A) tail and mediates the interaction between EIF4E and EIF4G which encourages the initiation of translation.
• RNA editing is a process which results in sequence variation in the RNA molecule, and is catalyzed by enzymes. These enzymes include the Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, which convert specific adenosine residues to inosine in an mRNA molecule by hydrolytic deamination. RNA editing is extensively studied in relation to infectious diseases, because the editing process alters viral function
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