 ## Graphical Presentation - Statistics Help

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### What is a Graphical Presentation and what are the uses of it?

The presentation of data with the help of diagrams - graphs, charts, or pictures to interpret and analyze the data under study is termed as Graphical Presentation.

Data can also be presented with the help of texts or tables. However, with the help of graphs, data can be presented in the most effective manner. Through graphs, a layman can also understand the statistical information of the data.

### Different types of Statistical Graphs:

Let us now discuss some of the important statistical graphs.

• Line-diagram:Line diagrams are mainly used to represent time-series data. Time-series data relates to data that varies with time. For example, the annual profit of a company for different years. The years are taken along the horizontal axis and the annual profit along the vertical axis. The values are plotted on the graph as points and then joined by line segments.The following figure shows the line diagram representing the annual profit of Company X during 2014-2019.
• • Bar-diagram:Bar diagrams can be used to represent both time series and spatial series data. By spatial series data, we mean data that varies over space. For example, we want to present the production of crops in different parts of India. In this diagram, we use bars of equal width are considered for different components of the series. The length of the bar represents the value of the variable. Now, a bar diagram can be both vertical and horizontal. A vertical bar diagram is used to represent time series data, while a horizontal bar diagram is used for spatial series data. The following figures show the two types of bar diagrams.
• Vertical Bar diagram:
• The following bar diagram represents the data that we used in the previous line diagram. • Horizontal Bar diagram:
• The following represents the production of rice in different parts of India. • Representation of percentages:
• Sometimes we may be interested in percentages rather than the absolute values, then we may use another type of bar diagram known as a stacked-bar diagram or a divided-bar diagram. Also, a more convenient way of representing percentages is by means of a pie diagram. Let us discuss this one by one as follows:

• Stacked Bar-diagram:In this kind of bar diagram we consider the total area of the bar to be 100. We use a vertical bar diagram, the area is divided into a number of sections by drawing lines parallel to the base so that the area of each such section represents the percentage of the corresponding class or the category. For example, the percentage of students in a college who studies the subjects - Maths. Statistics, English, Physics, Accountancy, and History. The following stacked diagram is the figure representing the above data.
• • Pie-diagram: For a pie-diagram, we use a circle instead of a bar, whose area enclosed is considered to be 100. The circle is then divided into a number of segments by drawing angles at the center. The area of each segment represents the corresponding percentages. For example, if we consider the percentages of people having educational qualifications - Undergraduate, Graduate, Masters, Doctorate and above, and represent this with a pie-diagram we will have the following figure:
• Frequency Graphs: With this kind of graph we can represent the frequencies for a number of classes or categories. One of the most important graphs to represent frequencies is the Histogram.

• Histogram:For a continuous variable, we can use a histogram to represent the frequencies. On the horizontal axis, we locate the class-boundaries and over each class-interval, we draw a rectangle having an area equal to the corresponding class-frequency. The following figure shows a histogram of a continuous distribution.
• Thus, a graph is a very important tool to visualize and represent statistical data.

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